Welcome to the fourth and final post in our Earthworm Engineers series, where you can learn from some of the best science about the value of these amazing creatures. We’re so excited that Professor Jenni Dungait is now the editor of the European Journal of Soil Science – and she’s made some important earthworm papers open access for a month. We’ve picked our favourite four and summarised them in this blog series.
Access the earthworm archives in the European Journal of Soil Science, to learn more about the science behind on-farm worms!
This study looks at the effect of different earthworm communities on the amount of soil carbon (within dung applications) shifted into the soil. They tracked this process by labelling the carbon with isotope tracing, which is a clever technique that gives a really specific picture of where exactly the carbon is moving to. The three main earthworm types were tested in different treatments: surface-dwelling worms (epigeic), deep-burrowing worms (anecic), and network-creating worms (endogeic).
First, the researchers found that with increasing inputs of dung, the abundance of earthworms tested also increased, presumably because the worms had a more consistent food source in these pots and could flourish!
Most of the tracked carbon was found in the soils top layer (0-75mm), although when the earthworm population included deep burrowing (anecic) earthworms, carbon from dung was often found at depths of up to 300mm, which shows just how effective these worms are at burrowing materials from the soil surface into its lower levels. The most successful treatments (with the greatest flow of dung shifted into soil organic carbon (SOC)) were those with all three types of earthworms present (epigeic, anecic and endogeic). So, a diverse population of worms is necessary for optimal dung break down into soils!
In pasture soils, dung left by livestock can therefore contribute to increased earthworm populations, as well as increasing soil organic carbon. This is important for the soils nutrient supply, and also helps to reduce CO2 levels in the atmosphere, which has potential to reduce the effects of climate change. In conventionally grazed systems, the quantity of dung deposited per hectare are less than the amounts used in this study, but it’s interesting to think about how this research adds to the evidence supporting mob-grazing systems, where livestock graze fields more intensively, and more manure is deposited per hectare as the stock moves through!